Category Archives: World War One Simulation

World War 1 Simulation: Bulgaria Journal

World War One Simulation

Bulgaria, Period 1, 1913

Today was the first day of war. Germany and the rest of the Central Powers came out strong. I thought that since we were close to the Ottoman Empire and that one of our objectives was to ally with them that they would want to do the same for us but oh were we wrong! Germany tricked us into thinking that themselves and the Ottoman Empire were not going to take over us and that they were going to take over Russia. But actually they were going to take over us. And just like that we got taken over in the first 20 minutes of the game.

Bulgaria, Period 1, 1914

The today was very interesting. I thought that the Allies would be a lot stronger in this whole simulation but they weren’t. Great Britain tried to help liberate us but in reality all they did was take forever to even get to the Mediteratianian sea. They had way too many road blocks such as protecting their navies from the Germans and trying to help France when they were being attacked by Germany. Italy was the next country to be taken over and they were very upset with Germany. The Central powers had become very strong.

Bulgaria, Period 1, 1915

There was all kinds of war and alliances today. Germany and Austria-Hungary declared war on Belgium and took it over. France and Germany fought continuously  for the southern part of France and The Ottoman Empire took over Egypt. The Ottoman Empire’s strategy seemed to be that they liked to take over areas surrounding their empire rather than take a long shot like Germany and go for some random country. Russia tried taking over parts of Germany and Russia tried taking a part of the Ottoman Empire but was unsuccessful. They also lost their navy too.

Bulgaria, Period 1, 1916

Today Germany tried taking over a part of France and was unsuccessful. The United States also got involved by lending some of their troops to Great Britain when they sought out to regain Belgium back. Portugal also went to the Allies side and remain their for the rest of the day. Germany tried attacking Great Britain and France but lost because lack of troops. Russia also surrendered and they backed out of the war. I thought that was interesting because I figured that they would stay in the war because they are ruthless and are never scared and want battle. Tomorrow should be interesting. I’m curious if the Untied States will be more involved.

Bulgaria, Period 1, 1917

Today was a pretty still day. Their was just lots of mobilizing and stand still. With about 10 minutes left in the year, countries started attacking. France had to ask of Great Britain’s help when they again got attacked by Germany. Germany and Austria- Hungary were victorious and took another chunk of land from France. The countries that were in war (that could) used poisonous gas. I thought that was interesting because I didn’t really seem a make or break in the number of troops that they put into that battle or the casualties that happened.

Bulgaria, Period 1, 1918

Today was also a pretty still day. There was a lot of stand still which was surprising because I thought that there would be a lot more action on the last day. The United States and Great Britain and tried to help out France again because they wanted to re take their original territory back from the Central Powers! They were victorious and regained part of what was taken. Personally, I thought that the Allies would have been stronger and that the Central Powers would have been weaker and would have had some kind of road blocks along the way.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: France 4


France 4 1913-

This is Day 1 and France became
alliances with Belgium. Russia is at war. France became mobilized.
France also became alliances with Italy and Serbia. My plan is to
take over my original land and take over Germany. Since I have Italy,
Belgium, and Serbia I can have the surrounding countries around

France 4 1914-

This is Day 2 and France has made the
Serbia Alliance Public. I sent 150 Navy Troops into Montenegro.
Montenegro is victorious and keeps their land. Since I didn’t have a
turn today I want to move troops into G2 of Germany. I want to move
600 troops there and take it over. Also I Want to send my Navy of-
379 into French North Africa. I talked to Great Britain and he is
going to send some troops into Libya so the Central Powers don’t take
it over.

France 4 1915-

This is Day 3 and I have 500 troops
into F3 and 500 into F2 leaving 4,397 troops in F1. I moved navy by
Belgium sent 1500 troops to Belgium. Belgium is now allies with
France and Great Britain. My overall plan is to take over G2 land.
That would get my objective of taking over a certain part of land in
the G2 spot.

France 4 1916-

This is Day 4 and France really didn

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Germany 4

Germany 4 Year 1913
As Germany we have realized that we aren’t going to win the Navel War so we decided to attack first move with our Navy to Great Britain. We decided that our key is to take out Russia so we can focus the fight on just one side

Germany 4 Year 1914
We took out some of the British Navy and then we started biting away from Russia and took all the way up to R1. France didn’t attack us at all which is perfect. We still have about 3.500 troops that can be used. We finished the day by taking over majority of Russia and tomorrow we are going to be getting more troops.

Germany 4 Year 1915
Russia surrendered so that is a huge plus we don’t have to worry about anything coming from that side. They can’t mobilize which saves us from like 5,000 troops. We are slowly going to start attacking France at this point, as well as taking out Romania, Greece, and Serbia. I tried convincing Belgium to let me send troops through there country but he refused so I am forced to start hacking away at Belgium now.

Germany 4 Year 1916
This point in the war its starting to get crazy with people coming out saying they are part of the allies. We have just been saying that we are going to destroy anything that isn’t part of the central powers. We have started to build up our army for the last few days when we are going to take out Italy and France.

Germany 4 Year 1917
Today I didn’t make it to school, but I was on chat with Bo and we had the strategy to just lay back and if Italy and France wants to get aggressive then we would get the defense bonus. Without me there I didn’t want the central powers to get to aggressive with out the main head honcho me. I told Bo to make sure the U-Boats were in the same ocean as the G.B. navy. He failed. We also thought they would start to attack in the southern part of the Ottoman Empire. So we started to rotate troops down there.

Germany 4 Year 1918
Today is the last day so we are going on the offense on france and Italy. I think that If me and Bo start to hack away with the first move then we will win even if Jacob attacks down in the southern part of the map. We started off by taking out Italy and then we were going to go after France. We finished the day off by having majority of the map and I would say that we won the war.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Ottoman Empire 4

Ottoman Empire 4 1914
Today we made a “secret alliance with Russia. We are planning to tell Germany and Russia anyway because they’re our main alliance. Russia says that we can have R4 if we let them use the canal between our land. We are planning to use R4 to sneak and destroy their capitol if Germany can’t get to it from R2. They think everything is cool between us. Let’s see how long that will last.

Ottoman Empire 4 1915
Russia is falling for the alliance. We got R4 and Germany got R3 and R2. Germany says they have enough troops to take Russia down so we got Bulgaria. Germany told us to take over Egypt to just so we have a buffer zone between our original territory. We are planning to get Romania and Greece whenever Germany tells us its a go. Russia’s “secret alliance with us is till going strong.

Ottoman Empire 4 1916
Russia tried attacking Germany and fell into a civil war. Germany tried allying with Belgium, but they wouldn’t agree. So Germany is planning to take them over. Great Britain was starting to move troops down so we decided to move troops into Egypt just to make sure no one can attack us there. Tomorrow we are going to take over Greece while Germany takes over Romania. Hopefully we get it. If we do a few more objectives get crossed off our list.

Ottoman Empire 4 1917
The United States joined the fight today. Great Britain, France and the United States all moved troops down the the French North Africa. I don’t know what there doing, but we are moving troops into Egypt just in case. Germany says there going to help out and move some troops into our capitol just to be safe.

Ottoman Empire 4 1918
This year was a break. Great Britain, France, and the United States  just moved troops down to French North Africa and Libya. We are stocking up in Egypt just incase they try to attack us by land. I think we should leave troops in the capitol but my president or my allies don’t think so. Tomorrow we plan to see what the Allies are going to try and take over. Russia’s “secret alliance apparently is still going strong. I wonder if they have any idea that we are telling Germany and Austria-Hungary everything.

Ottoman Empire 1919
Great Britain, France, and The United States did attack our capitol. Russia was mad because they thought that the deal was that we give them O1 if we get R4. We told them it wasn’t a deal and they still made the alliance with us. I guess they just didn’t pay attention. Anyway we won with 19 people left in our capitol with a few of Germany and Austria-Hungary troops left too. We decided to use our troops in Egypt and attack Libya. We lost by a ton, but we didn’t really care.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Ottoman Empire 4

WW1 Simulation
Ottoman Empire 4 1913
Today, we became allies with Austria-Hungry. Austria-Hungry is allies with Germany who is our allies with us. Our plan is to help Austria-Hungry in their battle with Greece and Serbia because it would be a win-win situation for us. He needs revenge for the  killing of their country’s heir and we need their land.
We are honoring our alliance with Germany by taking part in their plan to take over all Russia. The Prime Minister and I have made an alliance with Russia, but it will soon be betrayed by us. We have allowed them assess to our straight but in return, we get a part of Russia’s land. Because the Central Powers have the first move, we will move into Russia’s land that was given to us without conflict and later my allies, Germany and Austria-Hungry  and I, will attack and take over Russia’s capital.
Bulgaria has tried to because allies with all the Central Powers but I have not agreed, I did not say yes to this, Bulgaria does not know that we plan to take over their country. I know that Germany has signed an alliance with Bulgaria but I am confident in Germany to honor its alliance with us as we have honored the alliance with them.

Ottoman Empire 4 1914
Today, we really showed how loyal the Central Powers are to each. We all helped each other out and discussed our next moves. We did our part in the take over of Russia and took R4 with minimal force. Their president had accidentally put troops in R4 and could not take them out so we had to declare war and won the land. Germany and Austria-Hungry did their part and all that is left of Russia is R3 which, I believe Germany will attack and we, the Ottoman Empire, will gladly assist. We still are waiting for Germany to give us the peninsula that was once ours. I will soon write some sort of treaty to insure that we get our peninsula.
After we took Russia, Great Britain was on the move toward our strait. We took over Egypt and that left Great Britain with little choices to do anything.
We also do Bulgaria which was easy because they were neutral and no one helped them. We are getting very close to completing all of our objectives.

Ottoman Empire 4 1915
Today, the allies were smart and stalled. We could not take our turn to move our 500 of our troops to Bulgaria to attack Romania. At the end we were able to move our troops in and tomorrow we plan on attacking Romania. I believe we will be okay but if we need help, I am hoping that Austria-Hungry will help us.

Ottoman Empire 4 1916
Today, we took over Greece by sending troops from Bulgaria. Once we beat them, we sent part of our troops to Romania which was beat by Germany, who we are allies with. We then noticed that Great Britain’s navy was slowly making its way down us. We then moved troops from R2 into Egypt. We know that Germany and Austria-Hungry will defend us from the Allies. Everyone that was taken down by the Central Powers have taken the side of the Allies. I thought that because the Central Powers were so powerful, people would side with us but that is not true. No matter, we will defeat them all. I have also found out that gossip is a country’s best friend. I have found out some vital information such as one of America’s objectives is to attack Germany. We are allies with Germany and we will help them with all we can.

Ottoman Empire 4 1917
Today was all about movement. I was not attacked, nor did I attack. The U.S and British navies are slowly coming towards us. I think they will attack tomorrow. We moved our troops to O1, O2, O3, and Egypt. My Prime Minister told me to move the troops out of  Egypt to put into our country but the president of Austria-Hungry told me to put more in there. I agree with the president of Austria-Hungry. If they, for some reason, are able to take back Egypt, they will have less troops and we will still have the Ottoman Empire. Stalling is my best friend. Because of it, Great Britain and the U.S did not have time to declare war but they did move. We will defend our country. They will not get it without a fight.

Ottoman Empire 4 1918
I was worried because the British and U.S navy were getting close to O1, our capital, until my prime minister told me that they did not have any troops. Later on though, they did get troops on their navy and attacked our capital. We pulled in troops from O2 and Bulgaria. Our great allies, Germany and Austria-Hungry also helped us and together we defeated the British and Americans and won the war. We had nothing to lose, we had won the whole war, we had the majority of the land. We then tried to fight Great Britain and the U.S in Libia and we were defeated. It did not matter though, we still had all of our Ottoman Empire and they were severely injured by the attacks from Germany and Austria-Hungry. All the other countries throughout the war started allying with the Allies but the Central Powers ended up being the winners of the Great War.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: United States 4

WW1 Simulation

USA 4 1913
My strategy at this point is to just stay back and not get involved. We plan on staying neutral until something causing us to make alliances. I wouldn’t want to put that pressure on my people with our country just starting to develop. So I plan on staying neutral. Nothing has happened yet but I’m expecting something big is about to come.

USA 4 1914
There has beeb a lot of activity from the central powers taking over the allied countries. Right now no one has made a pass at that USA which is working in my favor. I have made a few helpful comments to Great Briton and France but haven’t completely made an alliance. I think that they both know that eventually I will side with them but right now its best that i stay neutral. So another day being neutral it is.

USA 4 1915
Today Russia was taken over. I believe this happened because they are the biggest country that touched the Ottoman Empire and Germany. Also they moved all their troops so one side which made it easy for them to conquer the others. Right now my strategy stays the same. Nothing has really happened that makes me think that I need to make allies but when the time comes I will. Im going to mobilize tomorrow in case something happens but I don’t plan on doing anything soon.

USA 4 1916
Things are starting to get heated. Great Britain and I have been talking a little because of all the war the central powers have been starting. I might have to ally with them in order to end all of this. The central powers are moving too quickly and we need to stop them. I don’t want to get involved too soon but I think my time is coming. We need to stop them and allying with France and Britain would be my best option. My strategy might be that I need to move into the war and ally with the allied nations.

USA 4 1917
After Great Britain intercepted the telegram from Germany to Mexico about starting war with the USA, I decided that it was time to ally. I allied with Great Britain and France. After moving my navy and the rest of my troops in Britain’s navy, we came to an agreement to attack the Ottoman Empire. We haven’t done it yet but it’s coming. We were being followed by Austria-Hungry’s U boats but we don’t think that they will get anything done. If things go as planned, the Ottoman empire will have the Central Powers move their troops so we can successfully take over part of Germany. Hopefully we can win this war.

USA 4 1918
Today was bad. We were able to out run Austria-Hungry’s u-boats so we attempted to attack the Ottoman Empire and lost. The Central powers moved and took over France. France and I were trying to attack Germany but before we were able to do it, they wiped out our armies. Im very disappointed in the way things turned out but the Allied powers just weren’t as aggressive as the Central powers. I feel that we would’ve had a better chance of winning if we started out aggressive instead of just waiting until the last few days.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Italy 4

Italy 4 1913
I’m thinking that I will mobilize and get ready for war. I will also become alliances with Austria Hungary Im thinking that I won’t make a move to take over any country for a while. I’m going to retain my country and back up my alliances until I decide to make a move.

Italy 4 1914
I made secret alliances with the central powers which are Germany and the Ottoman Empire, but i’m waiting until 1915 until I mobilize. Even though I will mobilize, I will still remain neutral. The Ottoman Empire and Austria Hungary form an alliance.

Italy 4 1915
I mobilized 1,251 troops. I made a public known alliance. I formed alliances with the allies and turned on the central powers, which I’m not sure if it’s a good or bad thing. Now I have the fear of the Central Powers taking me over since they are so big and have taken over many countries already.

Italy 4 1916
Today I attempted to take South Tyrol from Austria-Hungary. That did not turn out too well since Germany had some troops in South Tyrol. Since Germany had a rating of ten, me trying to take over South Tyrol didn’t even make a dent in the Central Powers. It resulted in me just loosing troops, having less troops to defend Italy if someone tries to take it over.

Italy 4 1917
There has not been any wars so far made by the Alliances or the Central Powers. The allies have just been moving troops around and moving their navy. The Central powers have been spreading out their army and navy’s as well. It’s getting intense with moving the Uboats, Navy, and Army. Not for sure who is going to make the first move. Sounds like they’re waiting until tomorrow until they make a move. I think that I’m going to try and take over Trieste from Austria Hungary because Austria Hungary has the same rating as me and Germany is not in Trieste, they were moved out.

Italy 4 1918
I planned to try and take over A2 but before I got the chance to, Germany sent troops into I1 and I did not have enough troops to send into I1 without leaving  troops to protect I1. Both Central Powers and the Allies are moving their troops. The Central Powers are moving closer and closer down into Italy. Austria-Hungary moved troops down into I2 and I did not have enough troops so they took over I2. Germany attempted to take over F2 but then France brought some troops down from F1 and was victorious. Germany came back and brought more troops and took over F2. The Central Powers won.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Romania and Japan 4

Romania 4 1913
Today 290 soldiers were mobilized and ready for action. Russia had talk of making a possible alliance with us. As I give this alliance thought I find it to be a good idea. Russia has is close and having their military help to regain land in Austria-Hungary could be very beneficial if it is needed. I plan to make this a secret alliance as I am to remain neutral until 1916. I overheard talk of the Ottoman Empire wanting an Alliance with me and I’m not sure how I feel about that.

Japan 4 1913
I feel the alliance with Russia will remain strong. It was discussed that Russia will want the help of our Navy as Russia fears that the Ottoman Empire could attack and Russia will need military help. I plan to have discussion with France and Great Britain to see if their plans include needing our help. I need to know how much help my allied countries might need so I can spread my military as needed. Since Russia has been the first in contact I will be sure to assist them as much as we are capable.

Romania 4 1914
Romania has remained neutral and there will not be an alliance made with Russia. Russian territory is being taken over and I am getting a little concerned that there may be plans of other countries to take over Romania. Once it is 1916 I plan to make alliances with GB and France. After that Alliance is made I will take action to get Transylvania, Banat, and Bukovina from Austria-Hungary. I will see how that goes and then make a plan to take Bessarabia.

Japan 4 1914
Today Egypt, controlled by Great Britain, was taken over by the Ottoman Empire. Our navy was in the right spot to assist Great Britain in trying to hold control, but we didn’t have a big enough navy to make the difference that was needed. As Russia is being taken over they may need our help, but I feel like the territories that have been taken over are the ones that we could’ve helped with. As of now no one has contacted us for help, but if they do we will do what we can. I’m not sure how to go about capturing German colonies in Asia, but I will need allied help I’m sure to be successful in doing so.

Romania 4 1915
Today Russia surrendered to the Central Powers and went into a civil war. The Central powers now have control of everything around Romania except Serbia. This has me a little concerned that once I leave neutrality that there could be plans to attack me. After an alliance with GB and France is made I would like to have the help have their Navies’ to try and take over A3. Now that Russia has already been pretty well taken over I don’t’ think I will have enough power to be able to fight for Bessarabia. I plan to mobilize more troops in 1916.

Japan 4 1915
Japan’s Navy remains ready to assist it’s allied countries. I’m really unsure on how to go about capturing German colonies is Asia. More discussion needs to happen before taking any action on that. None of my allied countries have contacted me for any help, so I don’t know if we will be needed in the near future or not. I do not plan to make any alliance with the Central Powers if an offer comes about.

Romania 4 1916
Today Romania finally had some action, both good and bad. Today I made alliances with both Great Britain and France, so I joined the allies. After I made my alliances, Germany declared war on me. The only one who could’ve helped me was Serbia and they didn’t want to, so I fell to Germany. Now I will work with the Allies and try to help them. Neither Great Britain or France declared any war today, but France did move some of their troops.

Japan 4 1916
With Russia surrendered and Great Britain and France not doing much, Japan hasn’t had any action. Japan has not made any other all alliances, but the only one I am considering is Germany. I’m thinking of taking to Germany to negotiate in order to capture the German colonies in Asia. As a deal maker I may need to make an alliance with them. Some action that did happen is Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary and Italy fell. Italy joined the allies as well before declaring war.

Romania and Japan 4 1917
Today was definitely not a warfare day. I think many plans have been made and a lot of strategizing is going on. I thought it was a little ridiculous that no one took any action really, but we will see what the future holds. The United States joined the Allies now. Great Britain moved Navy by North Africa and also moved 2 navies into the atlantic, by the US. They took some of the US’s troops and put them in North Africa. France joined in on this and moved troops into North Africa, so we can predict there could be something going on down there. The only action that really happened was Great Britain took over Crete, and that wasn’t big at all really. Central powers was doing a lot of movement as well, but no war action was taken. AH gave representation to the slabs. I have a feeling there will be some big clashes/action taking in 1917.

Romania and Japan 4 1918
Last day of war. The Allies had plans that were altered rather quick. Germany declared war on Belgium with 3500 troops and the allies decided not to help Belgium, so Germany won. Germany went on to attack Italy. The Central powers won I1 of Italy. As the Allied powers plans were altered they needed to move some troops around. Germany attacked F2 with 403 troops. France moved in 600 more troops and came out victorious! Austria-Hungary attacked Italy in I2 and were victorious. The Central powers now have all of Italy. Austria-Hungary also attacked F2, but the Allies won because France brought in 3000 troops. The Allies last war action was attacking O1, but the Central powers moved in troops and won. Central Powers won the war.

WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Great Britain 4

WW1 Lesson Plan

Great Britain 4 1914
Germany attacked our naval forces today. Needless to it was a simple victory.
Our navy is down to 780 now but there is no other navy in the world that isn’t allied
with us. In the future we plan to send troops to help Defend Africa. Russia is
suffering greatly right now so I have a feeling that we will send some troops over
there to help out.

Great Britain 4 1915
Russia was taken over today on their failed attack on Germany. The sent an
army of 5000 troops to try and defeat the German army. The Ottoman empire has
taken over Egypt, but our navy was not ready for the attack so our troops could not
get there in time. Bulgaria also got taken over and we were not in position to help.

Great Britain 4 1916
I have been moving my troops down into north Africa to hopefully take over
part of the ottoman empire. I am going to try to get the United States to ally so there
is no threat of their navy. If I can secure the Dardanelles straight maybe Russia
could come back into the war.

Great Britain 4 1917
Our plan went into action today. We attacked the Ottoman Empire’s capitol.
They ended up winning by about 20 troops. They then attacked us in Libya but we
were victorious. On the other side of the continent Germany was trying to take over
France. They attacked through Belgium but the U.S., France and us had enough
troops to help defend France.

Great Britain 4 1918
We went to war today. Our fleet took our troops over to the Ottoman
Empire. It was a good battle, but we ended up a little on the short side. With
Austria Hungary and Germany’s help, they were to strong for us. Meanwhile on the
other side of the map we were at war with Germany. They were trying to go through
Belgium. We had troops in Belgium, but the German army was to strong, so we put
all of our troops into France to help them defend their territory. At the end of the
year Germany attacked and we finally got ourselves a victory. It was a close one, but
we got it.


WW1 Lesson Plan Journal: Bulgaria 4

Bulgaria 4 1913
Today is the day when everything started. The things I have in mind are to just lay low for awhile. In this year I really haven’t had anything bad happen. I am starting to look at the year of 1914 for what I have going on. I don’t take any action until 1915. I am going to make Alliances with Central Powers. My thoughts about everything is that I need to make Alliances with Central Powers because I am very small and don’t have a good army. When I go to war to get the three countries back I will need to have a bigger army and Central Powers have to take the some thing I do.

Bulgaria 4 1914
Today didn’t start off as I thought I had everything planed. I did what they wanted me to and stay Neutral about things but I guess this is what happens. The Ottoman Empire decided to take over my land. I couldn’t fight back because I didn’t have enough power. So after today I will be joining forces with the Central Power.

Bulgaria 4 1915
Today I joined with Central Powers. Central Powers are trying to take over a lot of places but the one thing they can’t take over is great Britain because they are a Island. When the war started today Austria Hungry took Montenegro to war and Austria Hungry was victorious. Germany took Russia to war again and Russia lost and they became a Civil War. Germany did try and fight Belgium but Belgium was victorious to Germany. I have to say today was a pretty susses full  day and we still have a lot in mind!

Bulgaria 4 1916
Today as everything just got started Italy tried attacking Austria Hungry but no in doubt Italy lost. Austria Hungry took Serbia to way and Austria Hungry was victorious and won the war. Later that day another war was started and Germany went to war with Romania and Germany was vicarious over this war. As the day was ending the Ottoman Empire went to war with Greece and the Ottoman Empire was victorious. As the day ended we had taken over more allies and still going to take more over.

Bulgaria 4 1917
Today the United States got ahold of what Germany sent to Mexico. It was a telegram and it said that Germany was going to pay Mexico to invade the United States. Both the Central Powers and Allies moved troops to get ready to take countries over. There was no war that had went on today.

Bulgaria 4 1918
It has been a long five years of war and today we are going to go out with a bang and say we have a wonderful 6 years of war and that Central Power won. Germany finally took over Belgium and this time we won. They didn’t even stand a chance. We went into a second war and Germany attacked Italy and we won that war. We had a lot of soldiers that went into war. Germany thought that they could take over France but the Allies won and showed Germany up. We lost quit a bit of people in this war. Austria Hungry attacked the rest of Italy and now Central Powers is the owner of it. Great Britain and the United states attacked our capital but Central Powers had won the war. The last thing that had happen was the Ottoman Empire tried to attack Libya but the allies were victorious. After everything happened within the 6 year war the Central Powers were very victorious and took over a lot.